Saturday, December 27, 2008

Soapmaking and cedar II: Progress and evaluation

So I'd have to give my efforts with the glycerine soap and cedar oil a C at best--it was a creative idea to try to apply the lesson in making cedar oil, but it was very lazy not to look up whether glycerine was hydrophilic or hydrophobic, so that kinds of cancels out the creativity.

It wasn't a total loss, however--very little cedar oil actually got lost, and Mr thalarctos actually likes the pure-glycerine-and-nothing-else soap. I have lots of varieties of scented and colored soap in the shower that I like to combine for a different experience each time, while he's a pure Ivory-soap type of guy. Unfortunately, he has a number of allergies--he phoned me from the allergist's office after taking a series of tests to announce that, really, he was only allergic to two things: "food" and "nature". So soap with no scent or color suits him just fine, and he's already burned through the dolphin, starfish, and seashells I made.

Clearly, the results of the first batch showed that a change of course was called for. Learning that glycerine was indeed hydrophilic implied that a water-based herbal infusion would work better, so instead of dropping the lavender I had chopped up into the oil I was planning to infuse it in, I brewed a lavender tisane instead.

"Tisane" is nothing more than the strictly correct word for what is often called "herbal tea". Since herbal teas usually don't contain any Camellia sinensis, or tea plant, "tea" is, strictly speaking, a misnomer. But they're marketed as "herbal teas", and I did have some "peppermint tea" lying around, so I made a peppermint tisane as well to continue making glycerine soap with water-based herbal infusions.

These worked out much better!

The peppermint tisane was much more effective than the lavender one at imparting color to the soap--below is the first batch of peppermint soap, and you can see that it is definitely more yellow-green than was the pure glycerine.

Which totally makes sense--the tisane dissolved in the glycerine, and so the color and scent was evenly distributed in the resulting soap.

By contrast, the lavender soap (the embossed designs, while the peppermint is plain flat surfaces), came out much paler in color.

So this batch was definitely more of a success. There is room for improvement, however--while the color is pretty even, the herbal material itself is fairly unevenly distributed--it settled out, as you can see in the following photo.

So, goals for next time--a cedar tisane, in order to make my cedar soap successfully, and a solution to the problem of the herbal material settling out unevenly.

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Friday, December 26, 2008

Soapmaking and cedar I: Adventures in organic chemistry

In connection with the multidisciplinary and multi-institutional initiative with Northwest Indian College to incorporate the use of traditional native plants and foods into addressing diabetes, the Seattle Art Museum hosted a tour of the exhibit S'abadeb ("Radiant Gifts" from artists of the Salish peoples of the Northwest Coast and Puget Sound area), and a tour of the native plants at the garden at the Olympic Sculpture Park.

One of the activities when we got back to the building was making cedar oil. The instructor had already harvested small cedar branches, and she put us to work cutting the needles into small pieces--the smaller the better, since that exposes more surface area. That was pretty much all we had time for at the end of a full day of activities, so she sent us home with instructions for making an infusion of cedar oil from cut needles.

I went out and got some cedar needles of my own and cut them into small pieces for simmering. However, my cedar was very young, and smelled more astringent than the cedar she had provided, so I was not sure how this was going to work.

As she had described, I covered the cedar needles with about 1/2" of extra-virgin olive oil, and turned it to "low" to simmer. "Low" turned out to be too low to keep it warm enough, so later on, it spent most of the time on "medium-low", which provided a nice steady simmer.

The house smelled nice and cedary for the next week, as I kept it on simmer whenever I was home in the evening. I had asked previously if I needed to do anything special when I turned it off to go to work in the daytime. Obviously, traditional ways of cooking and creating oils didn't use to have to accommodate the 9-5 (or later); in fact, long ago in Navajo class, our teacher mentioned the effect that had on people's ability to attend days-long ceremonies, and how it was modifying traditional practice. But there was no need to do anything more than cover it and leave it on the stove; it wasn't going to go rancid as a result.

Oil goes rancid when it oxidizes; the point of simmering it for a week is to get all the water in the plant material to evaporate, so that it can't promote oxidization of the long hydrocarbon chains in the oil. After a week of simmering, a good deal of the astringent smell of the young cedar had disappeared, so I'm guessing that a large part of that quality was water-borne as well.

After the week was up, I strained the needles out of the infusion, and had about a cupful of strongly cedar-scented oil:

It was nice, but I wanted to craft more than just oil, so I decided to break out the soapmaking supplies I had recently gotten. There are several ways of making soap; the traditional and most labor-intensive way involves a chemical reaction between a strong base (usually lye) and fats, releasing a lot of heat and corrosiveness (we actually melted a thermometer at Terry's house making soap once!), so until I have a better workspace, I'm going with the less dramatic melted-glycerine method.

Melted glycerine soapmaking is pretty much what it sounds like--glycerine is a white solid; you melt it, add colors and scents that you want for the soap, and pour it into a mold to set. I decided cedar oil soap would be a nice thing to make, and set about mixing my fresh cedar oil into the melted glycerine.

This is how the first batch of soap came out.

Can you see my mistake yet?

It's basic organic chemistry--I had not bothered to look up glycerine to see whether it was hydrophilic or hydrophobic; I just assumed that--like the olive oil--it was hydrophobic.

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic (as in "rabies" :) are physical properties of molecules, referring to their distribution of electrical charge. Very briefly, and probably criminally oversimplified, if a molecule has a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other, it tends to dissolve in other polar solvents, such as water, and is said to be "hydrophilic". Similarly, if a molecule does not have charged ends in that way, such as the long hydrocarbon chains in oils, then it tends to dissolve in non-polar solvents such as oils, but not in water, and is said to be "hydrophobic". This is, by the way, why oil and vinegar don't mix; vinegar is polar (hydrophilic) and oil is hydrophobic.

You see how the oil in my soap pieces is collected in spots, with lots of white glycerine in between? That means that the oil did not dissolve in the glycerine, as I had planned/hoped/expected it would.

Sure enough, wiki-ing "glycerine" yielded the following information, dammit:

Glycerol has three hydrophilic hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature.

Had I bothered to look that up before just plunging in, I would not have wasted some of my cedar oil. And the soap came out pure glycerine, as all the cedar oil floated to the top and washed away (you can also see where I overfilled one of the seashells, and it ran over, erasing the boundary--note to self: even if I have a little left over, don't try to cram it all in, because that doesn't work). Oh, well, lesson learned.

Knowing belatedly that glycerine is hydrophilic, I switched to water-based herbal infusions, which worked out a lot better. I'll show how those turned out in the next post, as this one is getting quite long.

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Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Native Plant Salvage I: Usnea--Old Man's Beard

Dr. Terry let us know of a native plant salvage going on in Redmond a couple of Saturdays ago, and we showed up to find a very muddy site!

The site was up a hill of boot-sucking mud, where we found some hard-core salvage work to be done. The slope was a challenge to get up, laden with tools and bags, and the site was surrounded by fallen logs, which required some climbing to get over.

Terry observed that there were few medicinal plants, but a lot of good ground cover for replanting at other sites.

One of the plants(?--I don't know; I'm coming at this from a mammalian background, and am rather a botany virgin, but learning) which does have medicinal usage is Old Man's Beard, one of the Usnea species. Usnea is a lichen, which is the part I have not fully grokked yet--it is one of those combination organisms, in this case a fungus and a photosynthesizer, in this case, algae.

In this picture, you can see the Usnea growing on a fallen branch. My close-ups, however, sucked, so you won't get to see Terry showing me how you can tell real Usnea: when you pull it apart, the innermost layer resists and stretches like a tiny rubber band. She explained that Native Americans had used it to fight infection, and a PubMed search later showed that Usnea spp. are used against candida in Thailand [1], and other fungi and protozoans in the Andes [2].

It is known all over the Northwest--according to James Crippen, now at the University of Hawai'i, the Tlingit word for one species is tl’éx, meaning brown tree lichen, possibly speckled horsehair (Bryoria fuscescens) or methuselah’s beard (Usnea longissima).

Daniel E. Moerman, in Native American Ethnobotany, lists the following documented usages in the Northwest/Canadian Southwest:

Michael Moore describes how to make an Usnea tincture; I have not tried this out myself yet, but it seems consistent with other tinctures I've seen described.

All in all, a good day's hard work, and a lot of learning, even if the medicinal plants are rather sparse at this site.

An independent organism comprised of two symbiotic individuals is a fascinating concept, and I am looking forward to learning more about plants, medicinal plants, and lichens. In my familiar mammalian world, symbiosis is usually a little less structural and more physiological.

[1] Rukayadi Y, Shim JS, Hwang JK. Screening of Thai medicinal plants for anticandidal activity. Mycoses. 2008 Jul;51(4):308-12.

[2] Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Tapia A, Lima B, Pertino M, Sortino M, Zacchino S, Arias AR, Feresin GE. A new antifungal and antiprotozoal depside from the Andean lichen Protousnea poeppigii. Phytother Res. 2008 Mar;22(3):349-55.

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